Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA coronavirus. The virus is the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and is contagious through human-to-human transmission.

"Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2", Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia

We modelled the full SARS-CoV-2 proteome based on the NCBI reference sequence NC_045512 which is identical to GenBank entry MN908947, and annotations from UniProt. The underlying SWISS-MODEL workspace projects are accessible below. Our colleagues at the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics provide more resources on the SARS-CoV-2 genome on ViralZone or allow to track the current outbreak on Nextstrain. Several SARS-CoV-2 proteins reportedly interact in hetero-oligomeric complexes for which we also provide models in a dedicated hetero section. But be aware: the result of any theoretical modelling procedure is NON-EXPERIMENTAL and must be considered with care as models may contain significant errors. To this end SWISS-MODEL provides quality metrics which are described in the help section. The provided modelling projects are based on SWISS-MODEL template library version 2020-09-23 and will be updated as new templates become available.

IntAct lists interactions derived from literature curation or direct user submissions. We extracted those interactions and list the ones between SARS-CoV-2 and human host proteins with their structural coverage in a dedicated interaction page.

Show sequences
UniProtKB AC · Name
Description & Available Models
>sp|P0DTD1|R1AB_SARS2|1-7096 Replicase polyprotein 1ab OS=Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 GN=rep
MESLVPGFNEKTHVQLSLPVLQVRDVLVRGFGDSVEEVLSEARQHLKDGTCGLVEVEKGV
LPQLEQPYVFIKRSDARTAPHGHVMVELVAELEGIQYGRSGETLGVLVPHVGEIPVAYRK
VLLRKNGNKGAGGHSYGADLKSFDLGDELGTDPYEDFQENWNTKHSSGVTRELMRELNGG
AYTRYVDNNFCGPDGYPLECIKDLLARAGKASCTLSEQLDFIDTKRGVYCCREHEHEIAW
YTERSEKSYELQTPFEIKLAKKFDTFNGECPNFVFPLNSIIKTIQPRVEKKKLDGFMGRI
RSVYPVASPNECNQMCLSTLMKCDHCGETSWQTGDFVKATCEFCGTENLTKEGATTCGYL
PQNAVVKIYCPACHNSEVGPEHSLAEYHNESGLKTILRKGGRTIAFGGCVFSYVGCHNKC
AYWVPRASANIGCNHTGVVGEGSEGLNDNLLEILQKEKVNINIVGDFKLNEEIAIILASF
SASTSAFVETVKGLDYKAFKQIVESCGNFKVTKGKAKKGAWNIGEQKSILSPLYAFASEA
ARVVRSIFSRTLETAQNSVRVLQKAAITILDGISQYSLRLIDAMMFTSDLATNNLVVMAY
ITGGVVQLTSQWLTNIFGTVYEKLKPVLDWLEEKFKEGVEFLRDGWEIVKFISTCACEIV
GGQIVTCAKEIKESVQTFFKLVNKFLALCADSIIIGGAKLKALNLGETFVTHSKGLYRKC
VKSREETGLLMPLKAPKEIIFLEGETLPTEVLTEEVVLKTGDLQPLEQPTSEAVEAPLVG
TPVCINGLMLLEIKDTEKYCALAPNMMVTNNTFTLKGGAPTKVTFGDDTVIEVQGYKSVN
ITFELDERIDKVLNEKCSAYTVELGTEVNEFACVVADAVIKTLQPVSELLTPLGIDLDEW
SMATYYLFDESGEFKLASHMYCSFYPPDEDEEEGDCEEEEFEPSTQYEYGTEDDYQGKPL
EFGATSAALQPEEEQEEDWLDDDSQQTVGQQDGSEDNQTTTIQTIVEVQPQLEMELTPVV
QTIEVNSFSGYLKLTDNVYIKNADIVEEAKKVKPTVVVNAANVYLKHGGGVAGALNKATN
NAMQVESDDYIATNGPLKVGGSCVLSGHNLAKHCLHVVGPNVNKGEDIQLLKSAYENFNQ
HEVLLAPLLSAGIFGADPIHSLRVCVDTVRTNVYLAVFDKNLYDKLVSSFLEMKSEKQVE
QKIAEIPKEEVKPFITESKPSVEQRKQDDKKIKACVEEVTTTLEETKFLTENLLLYIDIN
GNLHPDSATLVSDIDITFLKKDAPYIVGDVVQEGVLTAVVIPTKKAGGTTEMLAKALRKV
PTDNYITTYPGQGLNGYTVEEAKTVLKKCKSAFYILPSIISNEKQEILGTVSWNLREMLA
HAEETRKLMPVCVETKAIVSTIQRKYKGIKIQEGVVDYGARFYFYTSKTTVASLINTLND
LNETLVTMPLGYVTHGLNLEEAARYMRSLKVPATVSVSSPDAVTAYNGYLTSSSKTPEEH
FIETISLAGSYKDWSYSGQSTQLGIEFLKRGDKSVYYTSNPTTFHLDGEVITFDNLKTLL
SLREVRTIKVFTTVDNINLHTQVVDMSMTYGQQFGPTYLDGADVTKIKPHNSHEGKTFYV
LPNDDTLRVEAFEYYHTTDPSFLGRYMSALNHTKKWKYPQVNGLTSIKWADNNCYLATAL
LTLQQIELKFNPPALQDAYYRARAGEAANFCALILAYCNKTVGELGDVRETMSYLFQHAN
LDSCKRVLNVVCKTCGQQQTTLKGVEAVMYMGTLSYEQFKKGVQIPCTCGKQATKYLVQQ
ESPFVMMSAPPAQYELKHGTFTCASEYTGNYQCGHYKHITSKETLYCIDGALLTKSSEYK
GPITDVFYKENSYTTTIKPVTYKLDGVVCTEIDPKLDNYYKKDNSYFTEQPIDLVPNQPY
PNASFDNFKFVCDNIKFADDLNQLTGYKKPASRELKVTFFPDLNGDVVAIDYKHYTPSFK
KGAKLLHKPIVWHVNNATNKATYKPNTWCIRCLWSTKPVETSNSFDVLKSEDAQGMDNLA
CEDLKPVSEEVVENPTIQKDVLECNVKTTEVVGDIILKPANNSLKITEEVGHTDLMAAYV
DNSSLTIKKPNELSRVLGLKTLATHGLAAVNSVPWDTIANYAKPFLNKVVSTTTNIVTRC
LNRVCTNYMPYFFTLLLQLCTFTRSTNSRIKASMPTTIAKNTVKSVGKFCLEASFNYLKS
PNFSKLINIIIWFLLLSVCLGSLIYSTAALGVLMSNLGMPSYCTGYREGYLNSTNVTIAT
YCTGSIPCSVCLSGLDSLDTYPSLETIQITISSFKWDLTAFGLVAEWFLAYILFTRFFYV
LGLAAIMQLFFSYFAVHFISNSWLMWLIINLVQMAPISAMVRMYIFFASFYYVWKSYVHV
VDGCNSSTCMMCYKRNRATRVECTTIVNGVRRSFYVYANGGKGFCKLHNWNCVNCDTFCA
GSTFISDEVARDLSLQFKRPINPTDQSSYIVDSVTVKNGSIHLYFDKAGQKTYERHSLSH
FVNLDNLRANNTKGSLPINVIVFDGKSKCEESSAKSASVYYSQLMCQPILLLDQALVSDV
GDSAEVAVKMFDAYVNTFSSTFNVPMEKLKTLVATAEAELAKNVSLDNVLSTFISAARQG
FVDSDVETKDVVECLKLSHQSDIEVTGDSCNNYMLTYNKVENMTPRDLGACIDCSARHIN
AQVAKSHNIALIWNVKDFMSLSEQLRKQIRSAAKKNNLPFKLTCATTRQVVNVVTTKIAL
KGGKIVNNWLKQLIKVTLVFLFVAAIFYLITPVHVMSKHTDFSSEIIGYKAIDGGVTRDI
ASTDTCFANKHADFDTWFSQRGGSYTNDKACPLIAAVITREVGFVVPGLPGTILRTTNGD
FLHFLPRVFSAVGNICYTPSKLIEYTDFATSACVLAAECTIFKDASGKPVPYCYDTNVLE
GSVAYESLRPDTRYVLMDGSIIQFPNTYLEGSVRVVTTFDSEYCRHGTCERSEAGVCVST
SGRWVLNNDYYRSLPGVFCGVDAVNLLTNMFTPLIQPIGALDISASIVAGGIVAIVVTCL
AYYFMRFRRAFGEYSHVVAFNTLLFLMSFTVLCLTPVYSFLPGVYSVIYLYLTFYLTNDV
SFLAHIQWMVMFTPLVPFWITIAYIICISTKHFYWFFSNYLKRRVVFNGVSFSTFEEAAL
CTFLLNKEMYLKLRSDVLLPLTQYNRYLALYNKYKYFSGAMDTTSYREAACCHLAKALND
FSNSGSDVLYQPPQTSITSAVLQSGFRKMAFPSGKVEGCMVQVTCGTTTLNGLWLDDVVY
CPRHVICTSEDMLNPNYEDLLIRKSNHNFLVQAGNVQLRVIGHSMQNCVLKLKVDTANPK
TPKYKFVRIQPGQTFSVLACYNGSPSGVYQCAMRPNFTIKGSFLNGSCGSVGFNIDYDCV
SFCYMHHMELPTGVHAGTDLEGNFYGPFVDRQTAQAAGTDTTITVNVLAWLYAAVINGDR
WFLNRFTTTLNDFNLVAMKYNYEPLTQDHVDILGPLSAQTGIAVLDMCASLKELLQNGMN
GRTILGSALLEDEFTPFDVVRQCSGVTFQSAVKRTIKGTHHWLLLTILTSLLVLVQSTQW
SLFFFLYENAFLPFAMGIIAMSAFAMMFVKHKHAFLCLFLLPSLATVAYFNMVYMPASWV
MRIMTWLDMVDTSLSGFKLKDCVMYASAVVLLILMTARTVYDDGARRVWTLMNVLTLVYK
VYYGNALDQAISMWALIISVTSNYSGVVTTVMFLARGIVFMCVEYCPIFFITGNTLQCIM
LVYCFLGYFCTCYFGLFCLLNRYFRLTLGVYDYLVSTQEFRYMNSQGLLPPKNSIDAFKL
NIKLLGVGGKPCIKVATVQSKMSDVKCTSVVLLSVLQQLRVESSSKLWAQCVQLHNDILL
AKDTTEAFEKMVSLLSVLLSMQGAVDINKLCEEMLDNRATLQAIASEFSSLPSYAAFATA
QEAYEQAVANGDSEVVLKKLKKSLNVAKSEFDRDAAMQRKLEKMADQAMTQMYKQARSED
KRAKVTSAMQTMLFTMLRKLDNDALNNIINNARDGCVPLNIIPLTTAAKLMVVIPDYNTY
KNTCDGTTFTYASALWEIQQVVDADSKIVQLSEISMDNSPNLAWPLIVTALRANSAVKLQ
NNELSPVALRQMSCAAGTTQTACTDDNALAYYNTTKGGRFVLALLSDLQDLKWARFPKSD
GTGTIYTELEPPCRFVTDTPKGPKVKYLYFIKGLNNLNRGMVLGSLAATVRLQAGNATEV
PANSTVLSFCAFAVDAAKAYKDYLASGGQPITNCVKMLCTHTGTGQAITVTPEANMDQES
FGGASCCLYCRCHIDHPNPKGFCDLKGKYVQIPTTCANDPVGFTLKNTVCTVCGMWKGYG
CSCDQLREPMLQSADAQSFLNRVCGVSAARLTPCGTGTSTDVVYRAFDIYNDKVAGFAKF
LKTNCCRFQEKDEDDNLIDSYFVVKRHTFSNYQHEETIYNLLKDCPAVAKHDFFKFRIDG
DMVPHISRQRLTKYTMADLVYALRHFDEGNCDTLKEILVTYNCCDDDYFNKKDWYDFVEN
PDILRVYANLGERVRQALLKTVQFCDAMRNAGIVGVLTLDNQDLNGNWYDFGDFIQTTPG
SGVPVVDSYYSLLMPILTLTRALTAESHVDTDLTKPYIKWDLLKYDFTEERLKLFDRYFK
YWDQTYHPNCVNCLDDRCILHCANFNVLFSTVFPPTSFGPLVRKIFVDGVPFVVSTGYHF
RELGVVHNQDVNLHSSRLSFKELLVYAADPAMHAASGNLLLDKRTTCFSVAALTNNVAFQ
TVKPGNFNKDFYDFAVSKGFFKEGSSVELKHFFFAQDGNAAISDYDYYRYNLPTMCDIRQ
LLFVVEVVDKYFDCYDGGCINANQVIVNNLDKSAGFPFNKWGKARLYYDSMSYEDQDALF
AYTKRNVIPTITQMNLKYAISAKNRARTVAGVSICSTMTNRQFHQKLLKSIAATRGATVV
IGTSKFYGGWHNMLKTVYSDVENPHLMGWDYPKCDRAMPNMLRIMASLVLARKHTTCCSL
SHRFYRLANECAQVLSEMVMCGGSLYVKPGGTSSGDATTAYANSVFNICQAVTANVNALL
STDGNKIADKYVRNLQHRLYECLYRNRDVDTDFVNEFYAYLRKHFSMMILSDDAVVCFNS
TYASQGLVASIKNFKSVLYYQNNVFMSEAKCWTETDLTKGPHEFCSQHTMLVKQGDDYVY
LPYPDPSRILGAGCFVDDIVKTDGTLMIERFVSLAIDAYPLTKHPNQEYADVFHLYLQYI
RKLHDELTGHMLDMYSVMLTNDNTSRYWEPEFYEAMYTPHTVLQAVGACVLCNSQTSLRC
GACIRRPFLCCKCCYDHVISTSHKLVLSVNPYVCNAPGCDVTDVTQLYLGGMSYYCKSHK
PPISFPLCANGQVFGLYKNTCVGSDNVTDFNAIATCDWTNAGDYILANTCTERLKLFAAE
TLKATEETFKLSYGIATVREVLSDRELHLSWEVGKPRPPLNRNYVFTGYRVTKNSKVQIG
EYTFEKGDYGDAVVYRGTTTYKLNVGDYFVLTSHTVMPLSAPTLVPQEHYVRITGLYPTL
NISDEFSSNVANYQKVGMQKYSTLQGPPGTGKSHFAIGLALYYPSARIVYTACSHAAVDA
LCEKALKYLPIDKCSRIIPARARVECFDKFKVNSTLEQYVFCTVNALPETTADIVVFDEI
SMATNYDLSVVNARLRAKHYVYIGDPAQLPAPRTLLTKGTLEPEYFNSVCRLMKTIGPDM
FLGTCRRCPAEIVDTVSALVYDNKLKAHKDKSAQCFKMFYKGVITHDVSSAINRPQIGVV
REFLTRNPAWRKAVFISPYNSQNAVASKILGLPTQTVDSSQGSEYDYVIFTQTTETAHSC
NVNRFNVAITRAKVGILCIMSDRDLYDKLQFTSLEIPRRNVATLQAENVTGLFKDCSKVI
TGLHPTQAPTHLSVDTKFKTEGLCVDIPGIPKDMTYRRLISMMGFKMNYQVNGYPNMFIT
REEAIRHVRAWIGFDVEGCHATREAVGTNLPLQLGFSTGVNLVAVPTGYVDTPNNTDFSR
VSAKPPPGDQFKHLIPLMYKGLPWNVVRIKIVQMLSDTLKNLSDRVVFVLWAHGFELTSM
KYFVKIGPERTCCLCDRRATCFSTASDTYACWHHSIGFDYVYNPFMIDVQQWGFTGNLQS
NHDLYCQVHGNAHVASCDAIMTRCLAVHECFVKRVDWTIEYPIIGDELKINAACRKVQHM
VVKAALLADKFPVLHDIGNPKAIKCVPQADVEWKFYDAQPCSDKAYKIEELFYSYATHSD
KFTDGVCLFWNCNVDRYPANSIVCRFDTRVLSNLNLPGCDGGSLYVNKHAFHTPAFDKSA
FVNLKQLPFFYYSDSPCESHGKQVVSDIDYVPLKSATCITRCNLGGAVCRHHANEYRLYL
DAYNMMISAGFSLWVYKQFDTYNLWNTFTRLQSLENVAFNVVNKGHFDGQQGEVPVSIIN
NTVYTKVDGVDVELFENKTTLPVNVAFELWAKRNIKPVPEVKILNNLGVDIAANTVIWDY
KRDAPAHISTIGVCSMTDIAKKPTETICAPLTVFFDGRVDGQVDLFRNARNGVLITEGSV
KGLQPSVGPKQASLNGVTLIGEAVKTQFNYYKKVDGVVQQLPETYFTQSRNLQEFKPRSQ
MEIDFLELAMDEFIERYKLEGYAFEHIVYGDFSHSQLGGLHLLIGLAKRFKESPFELEDF
IPMDSTVKNYFITDAQTGSSKCVCSVIDLLLDDFVEIIKSQDLSVVSKVVKVTIDYTEIS
FMLWCKDGHVETFYPKLQSSQAWQPGVAMPNLYKMQRMLLEKCDLQNYGDSATLPKGIMM
NVAKYTQLCQYLNTLTLAVPYNMRVIHFGAGSDKGVAPGTAVLRQWLPTGTLLVDSDLND
FVSDADSTLIGDCATVHTANKWDLIISDMYDPKTKNVTKENDSKEGFFTYICGFIQQKLA
LGGSVAIKITEHSWNADLYKLMGHFAWWTAFVTNVNASSSEAFLIGCNYLGKPREQIDGY
VMHANYIFWRNTNPIQLSSYSLFDMSKFPLKLRGTAVMSLKEGQINDMILSLLSKGRLII
RENNRVVISSDVLVNN

Replicase polyprotein 1ab is a multifunctional protein involved in the transcription and replication of viral RNAs. Contains the proteinases responsible for the cleavages of the polyprotein.

We model the mature proteins resulting from the cleavage and list them below.

>sp|P0DTD1|R1AB_SARS2|1-180
MESLVPGFNEKTHVQLSLPVLQVRDVLVRGFGDSVEEVLSEARQHLKDGTCGLVEVEKGV
LPQLEQPYVFIKRSDARTAPHGHVMVELVAELEGIQYGRSGETLGVLVPHVGEIPVAYRK
VLLRKNGNKGAGGHSYGADLKSFDLGDELGTDPYEDFQENWNTKHSSGVTRELMRELNGG

Host translation Inhibitor nsp1 (nsp1)

Inhibits host translation by interacting with the 40S ribosomal subunit. The nsp1-40S ribosome complex further induces an endonucleolytic cleavage near the 5'UTR of host mRNAs, targeting them for degradation. Viral mRNAs are not susceptible to nsp1-mediated endonucleolytic RNA cleavage thanks to the presence of a 5'-end leader sequence and are therefore protected from degradation. By suppressing host gene expression, nsp1 facilitates efficient viral gene expression in infected cells and evasion from host immune response.

Experimental structures (PDB: 7k3n, 7k7p) are available. Model quality estimates are low - use with care. Partial coverage by experimental structures of hetero-oligomeric complexes exist with ribosomal proteins (PDB: 6zlw, 6zm7, 6zme, 6zmi, 6zmo, 6zmt, 6zn5, 6zoj, 6zok, 6zon, 6zp4) and high quality models can be extracted from them but should be used with care.

>sp|P0DTD1|R1AB_SARS2|181-818
AYTRYVDNNFCGPDGYPLECIKDLLARAGKASCTLSEQLDFIDTKRGVYCCREHEHEIAW
YTERSEKSYELQTPFEIKLAKKFDTFNGECPNFVFPLNSIIKTIQPRVEKKKLDGFMGRI
RSVYPVASPNECNQMCLSTLMKCDHCGETSWQTGDFVKATCEFCGTENLTKEGATTCGYL
PQNAVVKIYCPACHNSEVGPEHSLAEYHNESGLKTILRKGGRTIAFGGCVFSYVGCHNKC
AYWVPRASANIGCNHTGVVGEGSEGLNDNLLEILQKEKVNINIVGDFKLNEEIAIILASF
SASTSAFVETVKGLDYKAFKQIVESCGNFKVTKGKAKKGAWNIGEQKSILSPLYAFASEA
ARVVRSIFSRTLETAQNSVRVLQKAAITILDGISQYSLRLIDAMMFTSDLATNNLVVMAY
ITGGVVQLTSQWLTNIFGTVYEKLKPVLDWLEEKFKEGVEFLRDGWEIVKFISTCACEIV
GGQIVTCAKEIKESVQTFFKLVNKFLALCADSIIIGGAKLKALNLGETFVTHSKGLYRKC
VKSREETGLLMPLKAPKEIIFLEGETLPTEVLTEEVVLKTGDLQPLEQPTSEAVEAPLVG
TPVCINGLMLLEIKDTEKYCALAPNMMVTNNTFTLKGG

Non-structural protein 2 (nsp2)

May play a role in the modulation of host cell survival signaling pathway by interacting with host PHB and PHB2. Indeed, these two proteins play a role in maintaining the functional integrity of the mitochondria and protecting cells from various stresses.

Only remote homologues were identified as potential template structures, limiting the expected quality of the models.

See here for template search results.

>sp|P0DTD1|R1AB_SARS2|819-2763
APTKVTFGDDTVIEVQGYKSVNITFELDERIDKVLNEKCSAYTVELGTEVNEFACVVADA
VIKTLQPVSELLTPLGIDLDEWSMATYYLFDESGEFKLASHMYCSFYPPDEDEEEGDCEE
EEFEPSTQYEYGTEDDYQGKPLEFGATSAALQPEEEQEEDWLDDDSQQTVGQQDGSEDNQ
TTTIQTIVEVQPQLEMELTPVVQTIEVNSFSGYLKLTDNVYIKNADIVEEAKKVKPTVVV
NAANVYLKHGGGVAGALNKATNNAMQVESDDYIATNGPLKVGGSCVLSGHNLAKHCLHVV
GPNVNKGEDIQLLKSAYENFNQHEVLLAPLLSAGIFGADPIHSLRVCVDTVRTNVYLAVF
DKNLYDKLVSSFLEMKSEKQVEQKIAEIPKEEVKPFITESKPSVEQRKQDDKKIKACVEE
VTTTLEETKFLTENLLLYIDINGNLHPDSATLVSDIDITFLKKDAPYIVGDVVQEGVLTA
VVIPTKKAGGTTEMLAKALRKVPTDNYITTYPGQGLNGYTVEEAKTVLKKCKSAFYILPS
IISNEKQEILGTVSWNLREMLAHAEETRKLMPVCVETKAIVSTIQRKYKGIKIQEGVVDY
GARFYFYTSKTTVASLINTLNDLNETLVTMPLGYVTHGLNLEEAARYMRSLKVPATVSVS
SPDAVTAYNGYLTSSSKTPEEHFIETISLAGSYKDWSYSGQSTQLGIEFLKRGDKSVYYT
SNPTTFHLDGEVITFDNLKTLLSLREVRTIKVFTTVDNINLHTQVVDMSMTYGQQFGPTY
LDGADVTKIKPHNSHEGKTFYVLPNDDTLRVEAFEYYHTTDPSFLGRYMSALNHTKKWKY
PQVNGLTSIKWADNNCYLATALLTLQQIELKFNPPALQDAYYRARAGEAANFCALILAYC
NKTVGELGDVRETMSYLFQHANLDSCKRVLNVVCKTCGQQQTTLKGVEAVMYMGTLSYEQ
FKKGVQIPCTCGKQATKYLVQQESPFVMMSAPPAQYELKHGTFTCASEYTGNYQCGHYKH
ITSKETLYCIDGALLTKSSEYKGPITDVFYKENSYTTTIKPVTYKLDGVVCTEIDPKLDN
YYKKDNSYFTEQPIDLVPNQPYPNASFDNFKFVCDNIKFADDLNQLTGYKKPASRELKVT
FFPDLNGDVVAIDYKHYTPSFKKGAKLLHKPIVWHVNNATNKATYKPNTWCIRCLWSTKP
VETSNSFDVLKSEDAQGMDNLACEDLKPVSEEVVENPTIQKDVLECNVKTTEVVGDIILK
PANNSLKITEEVGHTDLMAAYVDNSSLTIKKPNELSRVLGLKTLATHGLAAVNSVPWDTI
ANYAKPFLNKVVSTTTNIVTRCLNRVCTNYMPYFFTLLLQLCTFTRSTNSRIKASMPTTI
AKNTVKSVGKFCLEASFNYLKSPNFSKLINIIIWFLLLSVCLGSLIYSTAALGVLMSNLG
MPSYCTGYREGYLNSTNVTIATYCTGSIPCSVCLSGLDSLDTYPSLETIQITISSFKWDL
TAFGLVAEWFLAYILFTRFFYVLGLAAIMQLFFSYFAVHFISNSWLMWLIINLVQMAPIS
AMVRMYIFFASFYYVWKSYVHVVDGCNSSTCMMCYKRNRATRVECTTIVNGVRRSFYVYA
NGGKGFCKLHNWNCVNCDTFCAGSTFISDEVARDLSLQFKRPINPTDQSSYIVDSVTVKN
GSIHLYFDKAGQKTYERHSLSHFVNLDNLRANNTKGSLPINVIVFDGKSKCEESSAKSAS
VYYSQLMCQPILLLDQALVSDVGDSAEVAVKMFDAYVNTFSSTFNVPMEKLKTLVATAEA
ELAKNVSLDNVLSTFISAARQGFVDSDVETKDVVECLKLSHQSDIEVTGDSCNNYMLTYN
KVENMTPRDLGACIDCSARHINAQVAKSHNIALIWNVKDFMSLSEQLRKQIRSAAKKNNL
PFKLTCATTRQVVNVVTTKIALKGG

Papain-like proteinase (PL-PRO)

Responsible for the cleavages located at the N-terminus of the replicase polyprotein. In addition, PL-PRO possesses a deubiquitinating/deISGylating activity and processes both 'Lys-48'- and 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitin chains from cellular substrates. Participates together with nsp4 in the assembly of virally induced cytoplasmic double-membrane vesicles necessary for viral replication. Antagonizes innate immune induction of type I interferon by blocking the phosphorylation, dimerization and subsequent nuclear translocation of host IRF3. Prevents also host NF-kappa-B signaling.

Partial coverage by experimental structures (PDB: 6vxs, 6w02, 6w6y, 6w9c, 6wcf, 6wen, 6wey, 6woj, 6wrh, 6wuu, 6wx4, 6wzu, 6xg3, 6ywk, 6ywl, 6ywm, 7cjd, 7cjm, 7cmd, 7jir, 7jit, 7jiv, 7jiw, 7jme, 7jn2, 7jrn) and high quality models are available. Partial coverage by experimental structures of hetero-oligomeric complexes exist with ISG15_HUMAN (PDB: 6xa9), ISG15_MOUSE (PDB: 6yva), UBB_HUMAN (PDB: 6xaa).

>sp|P0DTD1|R1AB_SARS2|2764-3263
KIVNNWLKQLIKVTLVFLFVAAIFYLITPVHVMSKHTDFSSEIIGYKAIDGGVTRDIAST
DTCFANKHADFDTWFSQRGGSYTNDKACPLIAAVITREVGFVVPGLPGTILRTTNGDFLH
FLPRVFSAVGNICYTPSKLIEYTDFATSACVLAAECTIFKDASGKPVPYCYDTNVLEGSV
AYESLRPDTRYVLMDGSIIQFPNTYLEGSVRVVTTFDSEYCRHGTCERSEAGVCVSTSGR
WVLNNDYYRSLPGVFCGVDAVNLLTNMFTPLIQPIGALDISASIVAGGIVAIVVTCLAYY
FMRFRRAFGEYSHVVAFNTLLFLMSFTVLCLTPVYSFLPGVYSVIYLYLTFYLTNDVSFL
AHIQWMVMFTPLVPFWITIAYIICISTKHFYWFFSNYLKRRVVFNGVSFSTFEEAALCTF
LLNKEMYLKLRSDVLLPLTQYNRYLALYNKYKYFSGAMDTTSYREAACCHLAKALNDFSN
SGSDVLYQPPQTSITSAVLQ

Non-structural protein 4 (nsp4)

Participates in the assembly of virally-induced cytoplasmic double-membrane vesicles necessary for viral replication.

High quality models are available for the C-terminus which are predicted to form homo-dimers.

>sp|P0DTD1|R1AB_SARS2|3264-3569
SGFRKMAFPSGKVEGCMVQVTCGTTTLNGLWLDDVVYCPRHVICTSEDMLNPNYEDLLIR
KSNHNFLVQAGNVQLRVIGHSMQNCVLKLKVDTANPKTPKYKFVRIQPGQTFSVLACYNG
SPSGVYQCAMRPNFTIKGSFLNGSCGSVGFNIDYDCVSFCYMHHMELPTGVHAGTDLEGN
FYGPFVDRQTAQAAGTDTTITVNVLAWLYAAVINGDRWFLNRFTTTLNDFNLVAMKYNYE
PLTQDHVDILGPLSAQTGIAVLDMCASLKELLQNGMNGRTILGSALLEDEFTPFDVVRQC
SGVTFQ

3C-like proteinase (3CL-PRO)

Cleaves the C-terminus of replicase polyprotein at 11 sites. Recognizes substrates containing the core sequence [ILMVF]-Q-|-[SGACN]. Also able to bind an ADP-ribose-1″- phosphate (ADRP).

Experimental structures (PDB: 5r7y, 5r7z, 5r80, 5r81, 5r82, 5r83, 5r84, 5r8t, 5re4, 5re5, 5re6, 5re7, 5re8, 5re9, 5rea, 5reb, 5rec, 5red, 5ree, 5ref, 5reg, 5reh, 5rei, 5rej, 5rek, 5rel, 5rem, 5ren, 5reo, 5rep, 5rer, 5res, 5ret, 5reu, 5rev, 5rew, 5rex, 5rey, 5rez, 5rf0, 5rf1, 5rf2, 5rf3, 5rf4, 5rf5, 5rf6, 5rf7, 5rf8, 5rf9, 5rfa, 5rfb, 5rfc, 5rfd, 5rfe, 5rff, 5rfg, 5rfh, 5rfi, 5rfj, 5rfk, 5rfl, 5rfm, 5rfn, 5rfo, 5rfp, 5rfq, 5rfr, 5rfs, 5rft, 5rfu, 5rfv, 5rfw, 5rfx, 5rfy, 5rfz, 5rg0, 5rg1, 5rg2, 5rg3, 5rgg, 5rgh, 5rgi, 5rgj, 5rgk, 5rgl, 5rgm, 5rgn, 5rgo, 5rgp, 5rgq, 5rgr, 5rgs, 5rgt, 5rgu, 5rgv, 5rgw, 5rgx, 5rgy, 5rgz, 5rh0, 5rh1, 5rh2, 5rh3, 5rh4, 5rh5, 5rh6, 5rh7, 5rh8, 5rh9, 5rha, 5rhb, 5rhc, 5rhd, 5rhe, 5rhf, 6lu7, 6lze, 6m03, 6m0k, 6m2n, 6m2q, 6w63, 6w79, 6wnp, 6wqf, 6wtj, 6wtk, 6wtm, 6wtt, 6xa4, 6xb0, 6xb1, 6xb2, 6xbg, 6xbh, 6xbi, 6xch, 6xfn, 6xhm, 6xhu, 6xkf, 6xkh, 6xmk, 6xoa, 6xqs, 6xqt, 6xqu, 6xr3, 6y2e, 6y2f, 6y2g, 6y84, 6yb7, 6ynq, 6yt8, 6yvf, 6yz6, 6z2e, 6zrt, 6zru, 7bqy, 7bro, 7brp, 7brr, 7buy, 7c2q, 7c2y, 7c6s, 7c6u, 7c7p, 7c8b, 7c8r, 7c8t, 7c8u, 7cbt, 7com, 7cwb, 7cwc, 7cx9, 7d1o, 7jfq, 7jkv, 7jr3, 7jr4, 7ju7, 7jun, 7jvz, 7jyc, 7k3t, 7k40, 7k6d, 7k6e) and high quality models are available.

>sp|P0DTD1|R1AB_SARS2|3570-3859
SAVKRTIKGTHHWLLLTILTSLLVLVQSTQWSLFFFLYENAFLPFAMGIIAMSAFAMMFV
KHKHAFLCLFLLPSLATVAYFNMVYMPASWVMRIMTWLDMVDTSLSGFKLKDCVMYASAV
VLLILMTARTVYDDGARRVWTLMNVLTLVYKVYYGNALDQAISMWALIISVTSNYSGVVT
TVMFLARGIVFMCVEYCPIFFITGNTLQCIMLVYCFLGYFCTCYFGLFCLLNRYFRLTLG
VYDYLVSTQEFRYMNSQGLLPPKNSIDAFKLNIKLLGVGGKPCIKVATVQ

Non-structural protein 6 (nsp6)

Plays a role in the initial induction of autophagosomes from host reticulum endoplasmic. Later, limits the expansion of these phagosomes that are no longer able to deliver viral components to lysosomes.

Only remote homologues were identified as potential template structures, limiting the expected quality of the models.

See here for template search results.

>sp|P0DTD1|R1AB_SARS2|3860-3942
SKMSDVKCTSVVLLSVLQQLRVESSSKLWAQCVQLHNDILLAKDTTEAFEKMVSLLSVLL
SMQGAVDINKLCEEMLDNRATLQ

Non-structural protein 7 (nsp7)

Forms a hexadecamer with nsp8 (8 subunits of each) that may participate in viral replication by acting as a primase. Alternatively, may synthesize substantially longer products than oligonucleotide primers. May be required to activate RNA-synthesizing activity of Pol.

Hetero-oligomeric complexes with both nsp8 and nsp8/Pol are available in the hetero section. Experimental structures of hetero-oligomeric complexes (PDB: 6m5i, 6m71, 6wiq, 6wqd, 6wtc, 6xez, 6xip, 6xqb, 6yhu, 6yyt, 7aap, 7btf, 7bv1, 7bv2, 7bw4, 7bzf, 7c2k, 7ctt, 7jlt) exist and high quality models can be extracted from them but should be used with care.

>sp|P0DTD1|R1AB_SARS2|3943-4140
AIASEFSSLPSYAAFATAQEAYEQAVANGDSEVVLKKLKKSLNVAKSEFDRDAAMQRKLE
KMADQAMTQMYKQARSEDKRAKVTSAMQTMLFTMLRKLDNDALNNIINNARDGCVPLNII
PLTTAAKLMVVIPDYNTYKNTCDGTTFTYASALWEIQQVVDADSKIVQLSEISMDNSPNL
AWPLIVTALRANSAVKLQ

Non-structural protein 8 (nsp8)

Forms a hexadecamer with nsp7 (8 subunits of each) that may participate in viral replication by acting as a primase. Alternatively, may synthesize substantially longer products than oligonucleotide primers. May be required to activate RNA-synthesizing activity of Pol.

Hetero-oligomeric complexes with both nsp7 and nsp7/Pol are available in the hetero section. Experimental structures of hetero-oligomeric complexes (PDB: 6m5i, 6m71, 6wiq, 6wqd, 6wtc, 6xez, 6xip, 6xqb, 6yhu, 6yyt, 7aap, 7btf, 7bv1, 7bv2, 7bw4, 7bzf, 7c2k, 7ctt, 7jlt) exist and high quality models can be extracted from them but should be used with care.

>sp|P0DTD1|R1AB_SARS2|4141-4253
NNELSPVALRQMSCAAGTTQTACTDDNALAYYNTTKGGRFVLALLSDLQDLKWARFPKSD
GTGTIYTELEPPCRFVTDTPKGPKVKYLYFIKGLNNLNRGMVLGSLAATVRLQ

Non-structural protein 9 (nsp9)

May participate in viral replication by acting as a ssRNA-binding protein.

Experimental structures (PDB: 6w4b, 6w9q, 6wc1, 6wxd) and high quality models are available which are predicted to form homo-dimers.

>sp|P0DTD1|R1AB_SARS2|4254-4392
AGNATEVPANSTVLSFCAFAVDAAKAYKDYLASGGQPITNCVKMLCTHTGTGQAITVTPE
ANMDQESFGGASCCLYCRCHIDHPNPKGFCDLKGKYVQIPTTCANDPVGFTLKNTVCTVC
GMWKGYGCSCDQLREPMLQ

Non-structural protein 10 (nsp10)

Plays a pivotal role in viral transcription by stimulating both nsp14 3'-5' exoribonuclease and nsp16 2'-O-methyltransferase activities. Therefore plays an essential role in viral mRNAs cap methylation.

An experimental structure (PDB: 6zct) and high quality models are available which are predicted to form homo-dodecamers. Hetero-oligomeric complexes with both nsp14 and nsp16 are available in the hetero section. Experimental structures of hetero-oligomeric complexes (PDB: 6w4h, 6w61, 6w75, 6wjt, 6wkq, 6wks, 6wq3, 6wrz, 6wvn, 6xkm, 6yz1, 7bq7, 7c2i, 7c2j, 7jhe, 7jib, 7jpe, 7jyy, 7jz0) exist and high quality models can be extracted from them but should be used with care.

>sp|P0DTD1|R1AB_SARS2|4393-5324
SADAQSFLNRVCGVSAARLTPCGTGTSTDVVYRAFDIYNDKVAGFAKFLKTNCCRFQEKD
EDDNLIDSYFVVKRHTFSNYQHEETIYNLLKDCPAVAKHDFFKFRIDGDMVPHISRQRLT
KYTMADLVYALRHFDEGNCDTLKEILVTYNCCDDDYFNKKDWYDFVENPDILRVYANLGE
RVRQALLKTVQFCDAMRNAGIVGVLTLDNQDLNGNWYDFGDFIQTTPGSGVPVVDSYYSL
LMPILTLTRALTAESHVDTDLTKPYIKWDLLKYDFTEERLKLFDRYFKYWDQTYHPNCVN
CLDDRCILHCANFNVLFSTVFPPTSFGPLVRKIFVDGVPFVVSTGYHFRELGVVHNQDVN
LHSSRLSFKELLVYAADPAMHAASGNLLLDKRTTCFSVAALTNNVAFQTVKPGNFNKDFY
DFAVSKGFFKEGSSVELKHFFFAQDGNAAISDYDYYRYNLPTMCDIRQLLFVVEVVDKYF
DCYDGGCINANQVIVNNLDKSAGFPFNKWGKARLYYDSMSYEDQDALFAYTKRNVIPTIT
QMNLKYAISAKNRARTVAGVSICSTMTNRQFHQKLLKSIAATRGATVVIGTSKFYGGWHN
MLKTVYSDVENPHLMGWDYPKCDRAMPNMLRIMASLVLARKHTTCCSLSHRFYRLANECA
QVLSEMVMCGGSLYVKPGGTSSGDATTAYANSVFNICQAVTANVNALLSTDGNKIADKYV
RNLQHRLYECLYRNRDVDTDFVNEFYAYLRKHFSMMILSDDAVVCFNSTYASQGLVASIK
NFKSVLYYQNNVFMSEAKCWTETDLTKGPHEFCSQHTMLVKQGDDYVYLPYPDPSRILGA
GCFVDDIVKTDGTLMIERFVSLAIDAYPLTKHPNQEYADVFHLYLQYIRKLHDELTGHML
DMYSVMLTNDNTSRYWEPEFYEAMYTPHTVLQ

RNA-directed RNA polymerase (Pol/RdRp)

Responsible for replication and transcription of the viral RNA genome.

Monomer models may not be biologically relevant as there is experimental evidence for SARS-CoV that nsp7 and nsp8 activate and confer processivity to the RNA-synthesizing activity of Pol (Subissi et al., 2014 and Kirchdoerfer and Ward, 2019).

A hetero-oligomeric complex with nsp7/nsp8 is available in the hetero section. Experimental structures of hetero-oligomeric complexes (PDB: 6m71, 6xez, 6xqb, 6yyt, 7aap, 7btf, 7bv1, 7bv2, 7bw4, 7bzf, 7c2k, 7ctt) exist and high quality models can be extracted from them but should be used with care.

>sp|P0DTD1|R1AB_SARS2|5325-5925
AVGACVLCNSQTSLRCGACIRRPFLCCKCCYDHVISTSHKLVLSVNPYVCNAPGCDVTDV
TQLYLGGMSYYCKSHKPPISFPLCANGQVFGLYKNTCVGSDNVTDFNAIATCDWTNAGDY
ILANTCTERLKLFAAETLKATEETFKLSYGIATVREVLSDRELHLSWEVGKPRPPLNRNY
VFTGYRVTKNSKVQIGEYTFEKGDYGDAVVYRGTTTYKLNVGDYFVLTSHTVMPLSAPTL
VPQEHYVRITGLYPTLNISDEFSSNVANYQKVGMQKYSTLQGPPGTGKSHFAIGLALYYP
SARIVYTACSHAAVDALCEKALKYLPIDKCSRIIPARARVECFDKFKVNSTLEQYVFCTV
NALPETTADIVVFDEISMATNYDLSVVNARLRAKHYVYIGDPAQLPAPRTLLTKGTLEPE
YFNSVCRLMKTIGPDMFLGTCRRCPAEIVDTVSALVYDNKLKAHKDKSAQCFKMFYKGVI
THDVSSAINRPQIGVVREFLTRNPAWRKAVFISPYNSQNAVASKILGLPTQTVDSSQGSE
YDYVIFTQTTETAHSCNVNRFNVAITRAKVGILCIMSDRDLYDKLQFTSLEIPRRNVATL
Q

Helicase (Hel)

Multi-functional protein with a zinc-binding domain in N-terminus displaying RNA and DNA duplex-unwinding activities with 5' to 3' polarity. Activity of helicase is dependent on magnesium.

Experimental structures (PDB: 5rl6, 5rl7, 5rl8, 5rl9, 5rlb, 5rlc, 5rld, 5rle, 5rlf, 5rlg, 5rlh, 5rli, 5rlj, 5rlk, 5rll, 5rlm, 5rln, 5rlo, 5rlp, 5rlq, 5rlr, 5rls, 5rlt, 5rlu, 5rlv, 5rlw, 5rly, 5rlz, 5rm0, 5rm1, 5rm2, 5rm3, 5rm4, 5rm5, 5rm6, 5rm7, 5rm8, 5rm9, 5rma, 5rmb, 5rmc, 5rmd, 5rme, 5rmf, 5rmg, 5rmh, 5rmi, 5rmj, 5rmk, 5rml, 5rmm, 6zsl) and high quality models are available. An experimental structure of a hetero-oligomeric complex (PDB: 6xez) exists bound to the nsp7 / nsp8 / pol complex and high quality models can be extracted from it but should be used with care.

>sp|P0DTD1|R1AB_SARS2|5926-6452
AENVTGLFKDCSKVITGLHPTQAPTHLSVDTKFKTEGLCVDIPGIPKDMTYRRLISMMGF
KMNYQVNGYPNMFITREEAIRHVRAWIGFDVEGCHATREAVGTNLPLQLGFSTGVNLVAV
PTGYVDTPNNTDFSRVSAKPPPGDQFKHLIPLMYKGLPWNVVRIKIVQMLSDTLKNLSDR
VVFVLWAHGFELTSMKYFVKIGPERTCCLCDRRATCFSTASDTYACWHHSIGFDYVYNPF
MIDVQQWGFTGNLQSNHDLYCQVHGNAHVASCDAIMTRCLAVHECFVKRVDWTIEYPIIG
DELKINAACRKVQHMVVKAALLADKFPVLHDIGNPKAIKCVPQADVEWKFYDAQPCSDKA
YKIEELFYSYATHSDKFTDGVCLFWNCNVDRYPANSIVCRFDTRVLSNLNLPGCDGGSLY
VNKHAFHTPAFDKSAFVNLKQLPFFYYSDSPCESHGKQVVSDIDYVPLKSATCITRCNLG
GAVCRHHANEYRLYLDAYNMMISAGFSLWVYKQFDTYNLWNTFTRLQ

Proofreading exoribonuclease (ExoN/nsp14)

Enzyme possessing two different activities: an exoribonuclease activity acting on both ssRNA and dsRNA in a 3' to 5' direction and a N7-guanine methyltransferase activity.

A hetero-oligomeric complex with nsp10 is available in the hetero section. High quality models can be extracted from hetero-oligomeric complexes but should be used with care.

>sp|P0DTD1|R1AB_SARS2|6453-6798
SLENVAFNVVNKGHFDGQQGEVPVSIINNTVYTKVDGVDVELFENKTTLPVNVAFELWAK
RNIKPVPEVKILNNLGVDIAANTVIWDYKRDAPAHISTIGVCSMTDIAKKPTETICAPLT
VFFDGRVDGQVDLFRNARNGVLITEGSVKGLQPSVGPKQASLNGVTLIGEAVKTQFNYYK
KVDGVVQQLPETYFTQSRNLQEFKPRSQMEIDFLELAMDEFIERYKLEGYAFEHIVYGDF
SHSQLGGLHLLIGLAKRFKESPFELEDFIPMDSTVKNYFITDAQTGSSKCVCSVIDLLLD
DFVEIIKSQDLSVVSKVVKVTIDYTEISFMLWCKDGHVETFYPKLQ

Uridylate-specific endoribonuclease (NendoU/nsp15)

Mn(2+)-dependent, uridylate-specific enzyme, which leaves 2'-3'-cyclic phosphates 5' to the cleaved bond.

Experimental structures (PDB: 6vww, 6w01, 6wlc, 6wxc, 6x1b, 6x4i, 6xdh, 7k1l, 7k1o) and high quality models are available.

>sp|P0DTD1|R1AB_SARS2|6799-7096
SSQAWQPGVAMPNLYKMQRMLLEKCDLQNYGDSATLPKGIMMNVAKYTQLCQYLNTLTLA
VPYNMRVIHFGAGSDKGVAPGTAVLRQWLPTGTLLVDSDLNDFVSDADSTLIGDCATVHT
ANKWDLIISDMYDPKTKNVTKENDSKEGFFTYICGFIQQKLALGGSVAIKITEHSWNADL
YKLMGHFAWWTAFVTNVNASSSEAFLIGCNYLGKPREQIDGYVMHANYIFWRNTNPIQLS
SYSLFDMSKFPLKLRGTAVMSLKEGQINDMILSLLSKGRLIIRENNRVVISSDVLVNN

2'-O-ribose methyltransferase (nsp16)

Methyltransferase that mediates mRNA cap 2'-O-ribose methylation to the 5'-cap structure of viral mRNAs. N7-methyl guanosine cap is a prerequisite for binding of nsp16. Therefore plays an essential role in viral mRNAs cap methylation which is essential to evade immune system.

A hetero-oligomeric complex with nsp10 is available in the hetero section. Experimental structures of hetero-oligomeric complexes (PDB: 6w4h, 6w61, 6w75, 6wjt, 6wkq, 6wks, 6wq3, 6wrz, 6wvn, 6xkm, 6yz1, 7bq7, 7c2i, 7c2j, 7jhe, 7jib, 7jpe, 7jyy, 7jz0) exist and high quality models can be extracted from them but should be used with care.

P0DTC2 · SPIKE_SARS2
(1273 residues)
>sp|P0DTC2|SPIKE_SARS2 Spike glycoprotein OS=Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 GN=S
MFVFLVLLPLVSSQCVNLTTRTQLPPAYTNSFTRGVYYPDKVFRSSVLHSTQDLFLPFFS
NVTWFHAIHVSGTNGTKRFDNPVLPFNDGVYFASTEKSNIIRGWIFGTTLDSKTQSLLIV
NNATNVVIKVCEFQFCNDPFLGVYYHKNNKSWMESEFRVYSSANNCTFEYVSQPFLMDLE
GKQGNFKNLREFVFKNIDGYFKIYSKHTPINLVRDLPQGFSALEPLVDLPIGINITRFQT
LLALHRSYLTPGDSSSGWTAGAAAYYVGYLQPRTFLLKYNENGTITDAVDCALDPLSETK
CTLKSFTVEKGIYQTSNFRVQPTESIVRFPNITNLCPFGEVFNATRFASVYAWNRKRISN
CVADYSVLYNSASFSTFKCYGVSPTKLNDLCFTNVYADSFVIRGDEVRQIAPGQTGKIAD
YNYKLPDDFTGCVIAWNSNNLDSKVGGNYNYLYRLFRKSNLKPFERDISTEIYQAGSTPC
NGVEGFNCYFPLQSYGFQPTNGVGYQPYRVVVLSFELLHAPATVCGPKKSTNLVKNKCVN
FNFNGLTGTGVLTESNKKFLPFQQFGRDIADTTDAVRDPQTLEILDITPCSFGGVSVITP
GTNTSNQVAVLYQDVNCTEVPVAIHADQLTPTWRVYSTGSNVFQTRAGCLIGAEHVNNSY
ECDIPIGAGICASYQTQTNSPRRARSVASQSIIAYTMSLGAENSVAYSNNSIAIPTNFTI
SVTTEILPVSMTKTSVDCTMYICGDSTECSNLLLQYGSFCTQLNRALTGIAVEQDKNTQE
VFAQVKQIYKTPPIKDFGGFNFSQILPDPSKPSKRSFIEDLLFNKVTLADAGFIKQYGDC
LGDIAARDLICAQKFNGLTVLPPLLTDEMIAQYTSALLAGTITSGWTFGAGAALQIPFAM
QMAYRFNGIGVTQNVLYENQKLIANQFNSAIGKIQDSLSSTASALGKLQDVVNQNAQALN
TLVKQLSSNFGAISSVLNDILSRLDKVEAEVQIDRLITGRLQSLQTYVTQQLIRAAEIRA
SANLAATKMSECVLGQSKRVDFCGKGYHLMSFPQSAPHGVVFLHVTYVPAQEKNFTTAPA
ICHDGKAHFPREGVFVSNGTHWFVTQRNFYEPQIITTDNTFVSGNCDVVIGIVNNTVYDP
LQPELDSFKEELDKYFKNHTSPDVDLGDISGINASVVNIQKEIDRLNEVAKNLNESLIDL
QELGKYEQYIKWPWYIWLGFIAGLIAIVMVTIMLCCMTSCCSCLKGCCSCGSCCKFDEDD
SEPVLKGVKLHYT

Spike glycoprotein (S glycoprotein)

Spike protein S1 attaches the virion to the cell membrane by interacting with host receptor, initiating the infection. Binding to human ACE2 and CLEC4M/DC-SIGNR receptors and internalization of the virus into the endosomes of the host cell induces conformational changes in the S glycoprotein. Proteolysis by cathepsin CTSL may unmask the fusion peptide of S2 and activate membranes fusion within endosomes. Spike protein S2 mediates fusion of the virion and cellular membranes by acting as a class I viral fusion protein. Under the current model, the protein has at least three conformational states: pre-fusion native state, pre-hairpin intermediate state, and post-fusion hairpin state. During viral and target cell membrane fusion, the coiled coil regions (heptad repeats) assume a trimer-of- hairpins structure, positioning the fusion peptide in close proximity to the C-terminal region of the ectodomain. The formation of this structure appears to drive apposition and subsequent fusion of viral and target cell membranes. Spike protein S2' Acts as a viral fusion peptide which is unmasked following S2 cleavage occurring upon virus endocytosis.

Experimental structures (PDB: 6lvn, 6lxt, 6m1v, 6vsb, 6vxx, 6vyb, 6w41, 6wps, 6wpt, 6x29, 6x2a, 6x2b, 6x2c, 6x6p, 6x79, 6xc2, 6xc3, 6xc4, 6xc7, 6xcm, 6xcn, 6xdg, 6xe1, 6xf5, 6xf6, 6xkl, 6xlu, 6xm0, 6xm3, 6xm4, 6xm5, 6xr8, 6xra, 6xs6, 6yla, 6ym0, 6yor, 6yz5, 6yz7, 6z2m, 6z43, 6z97, 6zb4, 6zb5, 6zbp, 6zcz, 6zdg, 6zdh, 6zer, 6zfo, 6zge, 6zgg, 6zgh, 6zgi, 6zh9, 6zhd, 6zow, 6zox, 6zoy, 6zoz, 6zp0, 6zp1, 6zp2, 6zp5, 6zp7, 6zwv, 6zxn, 7a5r, 7a5s, 7a93, 7bwj, 7byr, 7bz5, 7c01, 7c2l, 7c8v, 7c8w, 7cah, 7cai, 7cak, 7can, 7ch4, 7ch5, 7chb, 7chc, 7che, 7chf, 7chh, 7cn9, 7jji, 7jjj, 7jmo, 7jmp, 7jzl, 7jzm, 7jzn, 7jzu) and high quality models are available which are predicted to form homo-trimers. Experimental structures of hetero-oligomeric complexes exist with A0A5C2GJG2_HUMAN (PDB: 6xey), ACE2_FELCA (PDB: 7c8d). A hetero-oligomeric complex with ACE2_HUMAN is available in the hetero section. Experimental structures of hetero-oligomeric complexes (PDB: 6lzg, 6m0j, 6m17, 6vw1, 7a91, 7a92, 7a94, 7a95, 7a96, 7a97, 7a98) exist and high quality models can also be extracted from them but should be used with care.

P0DTC3 · AP3A_SARS2
(275 residues)
>sp|P0DTC3|AP3A_SARS2 Protein 3a OS=Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 GN=3a
MDLFMRIFTIGTVTLKQGEIKDATPSDFVRATATIPIQASLPFGWLIVGVALLAVFQSAS
KIITLKKRWQLALSKGVHFVCNLLLLFVTVYSHLLLVAAGLEAPFLYLYALVYFLQSINF
VRIIMRLWLCWKCRSKNPLLYDANYFLCWHTNCYDYCIPYNSVTSSIVITSGDGTTSPIS
EHDYQIGGYTEKWESGVKDCVVLHSYFTSDYYQLYSTQLSTDTGVEHVTFFIYNKIVDEP
EEHVQIHTIDGSSGVVNPVMEPIYDEPTTTTSVPL

Protein 3a

Forms homotetrameric potassium sensitive ion channels (viroporin) and may modulate virus release. Up-regulates expression of fibrinogen subunits FGA, FGB and FGG in host lung epithelial cells. Induces apoptosis in cell culture. Downregulates the type 1 interferon receptor by inducing serine phosphorylation within the IFN alpha- receptor subunit 1 (IFNAR1) degradation motif and increasing IFNAR1 ubiquitination.

An experimental structure (PDB: 6xdc) and high quality models are available which are predicted to form homo-dimers.

>sp|P0DTC4|VEMP_SARS2 Envelope small membrane protein OS=Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 GN=E
MYSFVSEETGTLIVNSVLLFLAFVVFLLVTLAILTALRLCAYCCNIVNVSLVKPSFYVYS
RVKNLNSSRVPDLLV

Envelope small membrane protein (E protein)

Plays a central role in virus morphogenesis and assembly. Acts as a viroporin and self-assembles in host membranes forming pentameric protein-lipid pores that allow ion transport. Also plays a role in the induction of apoptosis.

Partial coverage by an experimental structure (PDB: 7k3g). Model quality estimates are low - use with care.

See here for available low quality models.

P0DTC5 · VME1_SARS2
(222 residues)
>sp|P0DTC5|VME1_SARS2 Membrane protein OS=Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2
MADSNGTITVEELKKLLEQWNLVIGFLFLTWICLLQFAYANRNRFLYIIKLIFLWLLWPV
TLACFVLAAVYRINWITGGIAIAMACLVGLMWLSYFIASFRLFARTRSMWSFNPETNILL
NVPLHGTILTRPLLESELVIGAVILRGHLRIAGHHLGRCDIKDLPKEITVATSRTLSYYK
LGASQRVAGDSGFAAYSRYRIGNYKLNTDHSSSSDNIALLVQ

Membrane Protein (M protein)

Component of the viral envelope that plays a central role in virus morphogenesis and assembly via its interactions with other viral proteins.

Only remote homologues were identified as potential template structures, limiting the expected quality of the models.

See here for template search results.

P0DTC6 · NS6_SARS2
(61 residues)
>sp|P0DTC6|NS6_SARS2 Non-structural protein 6 OS=Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 GN=6
MFHLVDFQVTIAEILLIIMRTFKVSIWNLDYIINLIIKNLSKSLTENKYSQLDEEQPMEI
D

Non-structural protein 6 (ns6)

Could be a determinant of virus virulence, since, when expressed in an otherwise attenuated JHM strain of murine coronavirus, it can dramatically increase the lethality of the latter. Seems to stimulate cellular DNA synthesis in vitro.

Only remote homologues were identified as potential template structures, limiting the expected quality of the models.

See here for template search results.

P0DTC7 · NS7A_SARS2
(121 residues)
>sp|P0DTC7|NS7A_SARS2 Protein 7a OS=Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 GN=7a
MKIILFLALITLATCELYHYQECVRGTTVLLKEPCSSGTYEGNSPFHPLADNKFALTCFS
TQFAFACPDGVKHVYQLRARSVSPKLFIRQEEVQELYSPIFLIVAAIVFITLCFTLKRKT
E

Protein 7a

Non-structural protein which is dispensable for virus replication in cell culture.

Partial coverage by an experimental structure (PDB: 6w37) and high quality models are available.

>sp|P0DTD8|NS7B_SARS2 Protein non-structural 7b OS=Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2
MIELSLIDFYLCFLAFLLFLVLIMLIIFWFSLELQDHNETCHA

Protein non-structural 7b (ns7b)

No homologues were identified as potential template structures for modelling.

See here for template search results.

P0DTC8 · NS8_SARS2
(121 residues)
>sp|P0DTC8|NS8_SARS2 Non-structural protein 8 OS=Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2
MKFLVFLGIITTVAAFHQECSLQSCTQHQPYVVDDPCPIHFYSKWYIRVGARKSAPLIEL
CVDEAGSKSPIQYIDIGNYTVSCLPFTINCQEPKLGSLVVRCSFYEDFLEYHDVRVVLDF
I

Non-structural protein 8 (ns8)

May play a role in host-virus interaction.

Experimental structures (PDB: 7jtl, 7jx6) and high quality models are available which are predicted to form homo-dimers.

P0DTC9 · NCAP_SARS2
(419 residues)
>sp|P0DTC9|NCAP_SARS2 Nucleoprotein OS=Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 GN=N
MSDNGPQNQRNAPRITFGGPSDSTGSNQNGERSGARSKQRRPQGLPNNTASWFTALTQHG
KEDLKFPRGQGVPINTNSSPDDQIGYYRRATRRIRGGDGKMKDLSPRWYFYYLGTGPEAG
LPYGANKDGIIWVATEGALNTPKDHIGTRNPANNAAIVLQLPQGTTLPKGFYAEGSRGGS
QASSRSSSRSRNSSRNSTPGSSRGTSPARMAGNGGDAALALLLLDRLNQLESKMSGKGQQ
QQGQTVTKKSAAEASKKPRQKRTATKAYNVTQAFGRRGPEQTQGNFGDQELIRQGTDYKH
WPQIAQFAPSASAFFGMSRIGMEVTPSGTWLTYTGAIKLDDKDPNFKDQVILLNKHIDAY
KTFPPTEPKKDKKKKADETQALPQRQKKQQTVTLLPAADLDDFSKQLQQSMSSADSTQA

Nucleoprotein (NC)

Packages the positive strand viral genome RNA into a helical ribonucleocapsid (RNP) and plays a fundamental role during virion assembly through its interactions with the viral genome and membrane protein M. Plays an important role in enhancing the efficiency of subgenomic viral RNA transcription as well as viral replication.

Partial coverage by experimental structures (PDB: 6m3m, 6vyo, 6wji, 6wkp, 6wzo, 6wzq, 6yi3, 6yun, 6zco, 7c22, 7cdz, 7ce0) and high quality models are available.

>sp|P0DTD2|ORF9B_SARS2 Protein 9b OS=Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2
MDPKISEMHPALRLVDPQIQLAVTRMENAVGRDQNNVGPKVYPIILRLGSPLSLNMARKT
LNSLEDKAFQLTPIAVQMTKLATTEELPDEFVVVTVK

ORF9b protein

May play a role in host-virus interaction.

An experimental structure (PDB: 6z4u) and high quality models are available which are predicted to form homo-dimers.

P0DTD3 · Y14_SARS2
(73 residues)
>sp|P0DTD3|Y14_SARS2 Uncharacterized protein 14 OS=Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 GN=ORF14
MLQSCYNFLKEQHCQKASTQKGAEAAVKPLLVPHHVVATVQEIQLQAAVGELLLLEWLAM
AVMLLLLCCCLTD

Uncharacterized protein 14

May play a role in host-virus interaction.

No homologues were identified as potential template structures for modelling.

See here for template search results.

>sp|A0A663DJA2|A0A663DJA2_SARS2 ORF10 protein OS=Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 GN=ORF10
MGYINVFAFPFTIYSLLLCRMNSRNYIAQVDVVNFNLT

ORF10 protein

No homologues were identified as potential template structures for modelling.

See here for template search results.

Hetero-Oligomeric Complexes

Show sequences
UniProtKB AC · Name
Description & Available Models
>sp|P0DTD1|R1AB_SARS2|3860-3942
SKMSDVKCTSVVLLSVLQQLRVESSSKLWAQCVQLHNDILLAKDTTEAFEKMVSLLSVLL
SMQGAVDINKLCEEMLDNRATLQ
>sp|P0DTD1|R1AB_SARS2|3943-4140
AIASEFSSLPSYAAFATAQEAYEQAVANGDSEVVLKKLKKSLNVAKSEFDRDAAMQRKLE
KMADQAMTQMYKQARSEDKRAKVTSAMQTMLFTMLRKLDNDALNNIINNARDGCVPLNII
PLTTAAKLMVVIPDYNTYKNTCDGTTFTYASALWEIQQVVDADSKIVQLSEISMDNSPNL
AWPLIVTALRANSAVKLQ

nsp7 / nsp8 hetero-oligomeric complex

Nsp7-nsp8 hexadecamer may possibly confer processivity to the polymerase, maybe by binding to dsRNA or by producing primers utilized by the latter.

Partial coverage by experimental structures (PDB: 6m5i, 6wiq, 6wqd, 6wtc, 6xip, 6yhu, 7jlt) and high quality models are available.

>sp|P0DTD1|R1AB_SARS2|3860-3942
SKMSDVKCTSVVLLSVLQQLRVESSSKLWAQCVQLHNDILLAKDTTEAFEKMVSLLSVLL
SMQGAVDINKLCEEMLDNRATLQ
>sp|P0DTD1|R1AB_SARS2|3943-4140
AIASEFSSLPSYAAFATAQEAYEQAVANGDSEVVLKKLKKSLNVAKSEFDRDAAMQRKLE
KMADQAMTQMYKQARSEDKRAKVTSAMQTMLFTMLRKLDNDALNNIINNARDGCVPLNII
PLTTAAKLMVVIPDYNTYKNTCDGTTFTYASALWEIQQVVDADSKIVQLSEISMDNSPNL
AWPLIVTALRANSAVKLQ
>sp|P0DTD1|R1AB_SARS2|4393-5324
SADAQSFLNRVCGVSAARLTPCGTGTSTDVVYRAFDIYNDKVAGFAKFLKTNCCRFQEKD
EDDNLIDSYFVVKRHTFSNYQHEETIYNLLKDCPAVAKHDFFKFRIDGDMVPHISRQRLT
KYTMADLVYALRHFDEGNCDTLKEILVTYNCCDDDYFNKKDWYDFVENPDILRVYANLGE
RVRQALLKTVQFCDAMRNAGIVGVLTLDNQDLNGNWYDFGDFIQTTPGSGVPVVDSYYSL
LMPILTLTRALTAESHVDTDLTKPYIKWDLLKYDFTEERLKLFDRYFKYWDQTYHPNCVN
CLDDRCILHCANFNVLFSTVFPPTSFGPLVRKIFVDGVPFVVSTGYHFRELGVVHNQDVN
LHSSRLSFKELLVYAADPAMHAASGNLLLDKRTTCFSVAALTNNVAFQTVKPGNFNKDFY
DFAVSKGFFKEGSSVELKHFFFAQDGNAAISDYDYYRYNLPTMCDIRQLLFVVEVVDKYF
DCYDGGCINANQVIVNNLDKSAGFPFNKWGKARLYYDSMSYEDQDALFAYTKRNVIPTIT
QMNLKYAISAKNRARTVAGVSICSTMTNRQFHQKLLKSIAATRGATVVIGTSKFYGGWHN
MLKTVYSDVENPHLMGWDYPKCDRAMPNMLRIMASLVLARKHTTCCSLSHRFYRLANECA
QVLSEMVMCGGSLYVKPGGTSSGDATTAYANSVFNICQAVTANVNALLSTDGNKIADKYV
RNLQHRLYECLYRNRDVDTDFVNEFYAYLRKHFSMMILSDDAVVCFNSTYASQGLVASIK
NFKSVLYYQNNVFMSEAKCWTETDLTKGPHEFCSQHTMLVKQGDDYVYLPYPDPSRILGA
GCFVDDIVKTDGTLMIERFVSLAIDAYPLTKHPNQEYADVFHLYLQYIRKLHDELTGHML
DMYSVMLTNDNTSRYWEPEFYEAMYTPHTVLQ

nsp7 / nsp8 / Pol hetero-oligomeric complex

Experimental evidence for SARS-CoV that nsp7 and nsp8 activate and confer processivity to the RNA-synthesizing activity of Pol (Subissi et al., 2014 and Kirchdoerfer and Ward, 2019).

Experimental structures (PDB: 6m71, 6xqb, 6yyt, 7aap, 7btf, 7bv1, 7bv2, 7bw4, 7bzf, 7c2k, 7ctt) and high quality models are available.

>sp|P0DTD1|R1AB_SARS2|4254-4392
AGNATEVPANSTVLSFCAFAVDAAKAYKDYLASGGQPITNCVKMLCTHTGTGQAITVTPE
ANMDQESFGGASCCLYCRCHIDHPNPKGFCDLKGKYVQIPTTCANDPVGFTLKNTVCTVC
GMWKGYGCSCDQLREPMLQ
>sp|P0DTD1|R1AB_SARS2|5926-6452
AENVTGLFKDCSKVITGLHPTQAPTHLSVDTKFKTEGLCVDIPGIPKDMTYRRLISMMGF
KMNYQVNGYPNMFITREEAIRHVRAWIGFDVEGCHATREAVGTNLPLQLGFSTGVNLVAV
PTGYVDTPNNTDFSRVSAKPPPGDQFKHLIPLMYKGLPWNVVRIKIVQMLSDTLKNLSDR
VVFVLWAHGFELTSMKYFVKIGPERTCCLCDRRATCFSTASDTYACWHHSIGFDYVYNPF
MIDVQQWGFTGNLQSNHDLYCQVHGNAHVASCDAIMTRCLAVHECFVKRVDWTIEYPIIG
DELKINAACRKVQHMVVKAALLADKFPVLHDIGNPKAIKCVPQADVEWKFYDAQPCSDKA
YKIEELFYSYATHSDKFTDGVCLFWNCNVDRYPANSIVCRFDTRVLSNLNLPGCDGGSLY
VNKHAFHTPAFDKSAFVNLKQLPFFYYSDSPCESHGKQVVSDIDYVPLKSATCITRCNLG
GAVCRHHANEYRLYLDAYNMMISAGFSLWVYKQFDTYNLWNTFTRLQ

nsp10 / nsp14 hetero-oligomeric complex

Nsp10 plays a pivotal role in viral transcription by stimulating nsp14 3'-5' exoribonuclease activity.

High quality models are available.

>sp|P0DTD1|R1AB_SARS2|4254-4392
AGNATEVPANSTVLSFCAFAVDAAKAYKDYLASGGQPITNCVKMLCTHTGTGQAITVTPE
ANMDQESFGGASCCLYCRCHIDHPNPKGFCDLKGKYVQIPTTCANDPVGFTLKNTVCTVC
GMWKGYGCSCDQLREPMLQ
>sp|P0DTD1|R1AB_SARS2|6799-7096
SSQAWQPGVAMPNLYKMQRMLLEKCDLQNYGDSATLPKGIMMNVAKYTQLCQYLNTLTLA
VPYNMRVIHFGAGSDKGVAPGTAVLRQWLPTGTLLVDSDLNDFVSDADSTLIGDCATVHT
ANKWDLIISDMYDPKTKNVTKENDSKEGFFTYICGFIQQKLALGGSVAIKITEHSWNADL
YKLMGHFAWWTAFVTNVNASSSEAFLIGCNYLGKPREQIDGYVMHANYIFWRNTNPIQLS
SYSLFDMSKFPLKLRGTAVMSLKEGQINDMILSLLSKGRLIIRENNRVVISSDVLVNN

nsp10 / nsp16 hetero-oligomeric complex

Nsp10 plays a pivotal role in viral transcription by stimulating nsp16 2'-O-ribose methyltransferase activity.

Experimental structures (PDB: 6w4h, 6w61, 6w75, 6wjt, 6wkq, 6wks, 6wq3, 6wrz, 6wvn, 6xkm, 6yz1, 7bq7, 7c2i, 7c2j, 7jhe, 7jib, 7jpe, 7jyy, 7jz0) and high quality models are available.

P0DTC2 · SPIKE_SARS2
(1273 residues)
>sp|P0DTC2|SPIKE_SARS2 Spike glycoprotein OS=Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 GN=S
MFVFLVLLPLVSSQCVNLTTRTQLPPAYTNSFTRGVYYPDKVFRSSVLHSTQDLFLPFFS
NVTWFHAIHVSGTNGTKRFDNPVLPFNDGVYFASTEKSNIIRGWIFGTTLDSKTQSLLIV
NNATNVVIKVCEFQFCNDPFLGVYYHKNNKSWMESEFRVYSSANNCTFEYVSQPFLMDLE
GKQGNFKNLREFVFKNIDGYFKIYSKHTPINLVRDLPQGFSALEPLVDLPIGINITRFQT
LLALHRSYLTPGDSSSGWTAGAAAYYVGYLQPRTFLLKYNENGTITDAVDCALDPLSETK
CTLKSFTVEKGIYQTSNFRVQPTESIVRFPNITNLCPFGEVFNATRFASVYAWNRKRISN
CVADYSVLYNSASFSTFKCYGVSPTKLNDLCFTNVYADSFVIRGDEVRQIAPGQTGKIAD
YNYKLPDDFTGCVIAWNSNNLDSKVGGNYNYLYRLFRKSNLKPFERDISTEIYQAGSTPC
NGVEGFNCYFPLQSYGFQPTNGVGYQPYRVVVLSFELLHAPATVCGPKKSTNLVKNKCVN
FNFNGLTGTGVLTESNKKFLPFQQFGRDIADTTDAVRDPQTLEILDITPCSFGGVSVITP
GTNTSNQVAVLYQDVNCTEVPVAIHADQLTPTWRVYSTGSNVFQTRAGCLIGAEHVNNSY
ECDIPIGAGICASYQTQTNSPRRARSVASQSIIAYTMSLGAENSVAYSNNSIAIPTNFTI
SVTTEILPVSMTKTSVDCTMYICGDSTECSNLLLQYGSFCTQLNRALTGIAVEQDKNTQE
VFAQVKQIYKTPPIKDFGGFNFSQILPDPSKPSKRSFIEDLLFNKVTLADAGFIKQYGDC
LGDIAARDLICAQKFNGLTVLPPLLTDEMIAQYTSALLAGTITSGWTFGAGAALQIPFAM
QMAYRFNGIGVTQNVLYENQKLIANQFNSAIGKIQDSLSSTASALGKLQDVVNQNAQALN
TLVKQLSSNFGAISSVLNDILSRLDKVEAEVQIDRLITGRLQSLQTYVTQQLIRAAEIRA
SANLAATKMSECVLGQSKRVDFCGKGYHLMSFPQSAPHGVVFLHVTYVPAQEKNFTTAPA
ICHDGKAHFPREGVFVSNGTHWFVTQRNFYEPQIITTDNTFVSGNCDVVIGIVNNTVYDP
LQPELDSFKEELDKYFKNHTSPDVDLGDISGINASVVNIQKEIDRLNEVAKNLNESLIDL
QELGKYEQYIKWPWYIWLGFIAGLIAIVMVTIMLCCMTSCCSCLKGCCSCGSCCKFDEDD
SEPVLKGVKLHYT
Q9BYF1 · ACE2_HUMAN
(805 residues)
>sp|Q9BYF1|ACE2_HUMAN Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 OS=Homo sapiens GN=ACE2
MSSSSWLLLSLVAVTAAQSTIEEQAKTFLDKFNHEAEDLFYQSSLASWNYNTNITEENVQ
NMNNAGDKWSAFLKEQSTLAQMYPLQEIQNLTVKLQLQALQQNGSSVLSEDKSKRLNTIL
NTMSTIYSTGKVCNPDNPQECLLLEPGLNEIMANSLDYNERLWAWESWRSEVGKQLRPLY
EEYVVLKNEMARANHYEDYGDYWRGDYEVNGVDGYDYSRGQLIEDVEHTFEEIKPLYEHL
HAYVRAKLMNAYPSYISPIGCLPAHLLGDMWGRFWTNLYSLTVPFGQKPNIDVTDAMVDQ
AWDAQRIFKEAEKFFVSVGLPNMTQGFWENSMLTDPGNVQKAVCHPTAWDLGKGDFRILM
CTKVTMDDFLTAHHEMGHIQYDMAYAAQPFLLRNGANEGFHEAVGEIMSLSAATPKHLKS
IGLLSPDFQEDNETEINFLLKQALTIVGTLPFTYMLEKWRWMVFKGEIPKDQWMKKWWEM
KREIVGVVEPVPHDETYCDPASLFHVSNDYSFIRYYTRTLYQFQFQEALCQAAKHEGPLH
KCDISNSTEAGQKLFNMLRLGKSEPWTLALENVVGAKNMNVRPLLNYFEPLFTWLKDQNK
NSFVGWSTDWSPYADQSIKVRISLKSALGDKAYEWNDNEMYLFRSSVAYAMRQYFLKVKN
QMILFGEEDVRVANLKPRISFNFFVTAPKNVSDIIPRTEVEKAIRMSRSRINDAFRLNDN
SLEFLGIQPTLGPPNQPPVSIWLIVFGVVMGVIVVGIVILIFTGIRDRKKKNKARSGENP
YASIDISKGENNPGFQNTDDVQTSF

Spike glycoprotein / ACE2_HUMAN hetero-oligomeric complex

Spike protein S1 binds to human ACE2, initiating the infection.

Experimental structures of hetero-oligomeric complexes (PDB: 6lzg, 6m0j, 6m17, 6vw1, 7a91, 7a92, 7a94, 7a95, 7a96, 7a97, 7a98) and high quality models are available.